Urbanization: a blessing in disguise

Essay on: Urbanisation-a blessing in disguise.  (1200 words)
Urbanization is a population shift from rural to urban areas.In statistical sense,urbanization connotes to the ratio of urban population to the total population size.But,this definition varies from country to country according to their geographical & social environment.In Argentina,settlement having population of more than 2000 people is categorized as urban settlement whereas in Norway,the localities of 200 or more inhabitants is classified as urban.In India, a minimum population of 5000 with at least 75% of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits along with density of 400 persons per sq. km. is referred as urban settlement.

As the industries of the worlds are growing fast,urbanisation is proceeding so rapidly that it is generating a wide range of employment.New industries helps in creating large scale of employment which is much needed in developing countries like India,It enhances per capita income of people & region achieves prosperity.

The major advantage of urbanization is technical progression & thereby developing scientific attitude of the people.The result of technical advancement is mechanization that increases the country's output.As many investors were favoured towards urban sector,many facilities are available in cities which allures rural people to migrate.Also, Government had established all the higher educational centers in big & small urban towns which acts as magnet for people seeking higher education.

Urban infrastructure is a physical or structural part of the city that includes transportation,sewage system,utility system and its buildings.Transportation helps rural people to connect with urban areas and also foreign tourists gets attracted to good cities/towns with better transport facilities.Urban areas ensure that all the services that people require such as home ,workplace,shops etc are all within close proximity.This reduces transport costs and boosts energy efficiency.It is also far more easier and economical to supply gas,water,electricity,fuel,sewage system to people who lives in close proximity than people who lives far apart.

By 2050,about 70% of population will be living in cities,it will need 500 new cities for to accomodate the influx.The announcement of "100 smart cities" falls in line with this vision.A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure,sustainable real estate,communications and market viability.In a smart city,economic development and activity is sustainable & rationally incremental by virtue of being based on demand and supply.

Overviewing urbanization as a blessing in disguise,it has been seen that this process has proved blessing ofcourse leading to general development of economy through industrialization & other related activities but,it also has its share of hiccups.

Urbanization has given rise to a number of problems like overcrowding in urban areas,increase in slums,sheer inadequacy of infrastructure and various civic services.Poor urban dwellers have low living standard and are deprived of basic civic amenities.All these problems has been caused due to uneven urbanization.Rural People instead of migrating to nearest towns/cities,migrates to big cities and metropolitans.

Government of India has taken certain measures to tackle these problems.One of those is Swarn Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana(SJSRY) throughout the country, aimed at providing gainful employment to the urban unemployed and under-employed through encouraging the setting up of self employment ventures by the urban poor living below poverty line & through wage employment.
Another scheme is Rajiv Awas Yojana(RAY) for slum areas.In this scheme,50% of the cost of provision of basic civic & social infrastructure & amenities and of housing,including rental housing would be borne by center government.
Also for urban poors, Government has launched Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission(JNNURM) to assist cities and towns in taking up housing & infrastructure facilities for urban poors in 65 cities.
To stop uneven urbanization,govt. is forming Special Economic Zones/Regions(SEZs/SERs) in small cities near industrial areas to attract foreign investments.It will help in generating jobs and development of nearby areas.

But,problems of urbanization are outweighed by the developments that are happening due to urbanization.It is improving overall standard of living of people along with enhancing country's GDP by manifold.

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